Reading List


Using Technology

Online Communication


Children and Adolescents and Digital Media

Today’s children and adolescents are immersed in both traditional and new forms of digital media. Research on traditional media, such as television, has identified health concerns and negative outcomes that correlate with the duration and content of viewing. Over the past decade, the use of digital media, including interactive and social media, has grown, and research evidence suggests that these newer media offer both benefits and risks to the health of children and teenagers. Evidence-based benefits identified from the use of digital and social media include early learning, exposure to new ideas and knowledge, increased opportunities for social contact and support, and new opportunities to access health promotion messages and information. Risks of such media include negative health effects on sleep, attention, and learning; a higher incidence of obesity and depression; exposure to inaccurate, inappropriate, or unsafe content and contacts; and compromised privacy and confidentiality. This technical report reviews the literature regarding these opportunities and risks, framed around clinical questions, for children from birth to adulthood. To promote health and wellness in children and adolescents, it is important to maintain adequate physical activity, healthy nutrition, good sleep hygiene, and a nurturing social environment. A healthy Family Media Use Plan ( that is individualized for a specific child, teenager, or family can identify an appropriate balance between screen time/online time and other activities, set boundaries for accessing content, guide displays of personal information, encourage age-appropriate critical thinking and digital literacy, and support open family communication and implementation of consistent rules about media use.

By Yolanda (Linda) Reid Chassiakos, Jenny Radesky, Dimitri Christakis, Megan A. Moreno, Corinn Cross and Council on Communications and Media



Digital Literacy, Creativity, and Autonomous Learning

Today, most people use technology not only during their formal education, in their professions or jobs but also in pastime activities in which they are motivated to produce a digital artifact (e.g., music, art, movies, apps for mobiles) or to solve problems related to their interests or hobbies. These pastime activities have a very strong creative potential. At the beginning, people usually have an idea or a problem to consider without having any notions about which technology would be needed or even if they are capable of using such technology (see DIY or makerspace initiatives). People having such problems use technology to find solutions. In such cases, they rarely have any prior specific training and they start learning autonomously in their own time, using their own way and having in mind their own idea of digital artifacts. As a result of their creative approach, they may come up with one or more “original” solutions. The development of young people’s skills to use digital technology is not only a school issue provided by the curriculum but also mainly derives from their day-to-day experience, interest, and needs outside the school context. Young people tend to learn from one another in their free time how to use technology, share with each other what they have done with technologies, consult each other, and discover how to use technology and for what. Consequently, this entry aims to present growing digital literacy through creativity and autonomous learning.

By Černochová & Selcuk



Collaborative learning practices: teacher and student perceived obstacles to effective student collaboration

While the educational literature mentions several obstacles affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning (CL), they have often been investigated through the perceptions of only one actor, either teachers or students. Therefore, some sources of obstacles that teachers and students encounter may not have been revealed. In this study, 19 teachers and 23 students in different disciplines at a pre-service teacher education faculty at a university in Vietnam were interviewed. In total, 47% of the teachers taught science subjects and 53% taught social subjects; 35% of the students majored in science subjects, 57% in social subjects, and 8% in primary education. With regard to study cohorts, 22% of the students were in the first and second year while 78% were in the third and fourth year of their four year bachelor’s programme. These programmes produce qualified teachers for primary and secondary schools nationwide. Based on grounded theory analysis, four common obstacles to collaboration were identified: students’ lack of collaborative skills, free-riding, competence status, and friendship. Furthermore, the results showed three interrelated antecedents that contribute to these obstacles. Central to the antecedents is the strong focus of the teachers on the cognitive aspects of CL, which led the participating teachers to neglect the collaborative aspects of CL. These antecedents were demonstrated in the ways teachers set CL goals, provided instruction, and assessed student collaboration. This study may be useful for educators, designers, and researchers to foster the quality of student collaboration.

By Ha Le, Jeroen Janssen and Theo Wubbels

Roll of Technology


How Technology is Changing Work and Organizations

Given the rapid advances and the increased reliance on technology, the question of how it is changing work and employment is highly salient for scholars of organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OP/OB). This article attempts to interpret the progress, direction, and purpose of current research on the effects of technology on work and organizations. After a review of key breakthroughs in the evolution of technology, we consider the disruptive effects of emerging information and communication technologies. We then examine numbers and types of jobs affected by developments in technology, and how this will lead to significant worker dislocation. To illustrate technology’s impact on work, work systems, and organizations, we present four popular technologies: electronic monitoring systems, robots, teleconferencing, and wearable computing devices. To provide insights regarding what we know about the effects of technology for OP/OB scholars, we consider the results of research conducted from four different perspectives on the role of technology in management. We also examine how that role is changing in the emerging world of technology. We conclude by considering approaches to six human resources (HR) areas supported by traditional and emerging technologies, identifying related research questions that should have profound implications both for research and for practice, and providing guidance for future research.

By Wayne Cascio and Ramiro Montealegre



Internet safety in emerging educational contexts

Concern has arisen for the safety of children using the Internet to support their education outside the school context. Inappropriate material such as pornography, inflammatory and racist writings can be accessed both by accident and with deliberate intent to view. Children are also perceived to be at risk from approaches by strangers, particularly in web-based chat rooms. A survey of the international literature in this area highlighted worldwide concern for the safety of young Internet users and it was generally agreed that schools have a fundamental role in ensuring their safety. The survey findings indicated that a thorough audit of Internet Safety teaching and practices was a vital stage in examining these practices and informing future planning. This paper reports on the consequent audit of Internet Safety practices in over 500 schools from 27 Local Education Authorities (LEAs) across England, commissioned by Becta and conducted during the Summer term 2002. Independent, state and special schools were included in the survey at both primary and secondary levels. ICT advisors from the sampled LEAs and representatives of Internet Safety organisations were also invited to complete a linked questionnaire. A number of recommendations for Internet Safety teaching, in particular, ensuring that children are aware of safe practices for surfing the Internet in less regulated contexts outside the school, will be presented based on the evidence gathered in the survey. Additionally emerging concerns for Internet Safety practices in schools such as the technical and moral difficulties of filtering Internet access via mobile technologies will be highlighted.

By Jocelyn Wishart

Finding and Selecting Information

Critical Thinking